May she be welcomed into heaven because she put her faith in Christ! 1926-2022. Historians of the monarchs of Europe always include several genealogical tables. Here are some of them for your convenience. Further, each monarch massively influenced influenced the Western European church, and the church influenced them. Continue reading
Category Archives: European Church History
The Quaker Council of Philadelphia Proclaims James King
Dateline: 11 May 1685: Maybe the Quakers thought it prudent to honor the new king. But there was a problem–his religion. Both sides were part of European and American church history, in the colonial era. At his accession to the throne, he became James II.
Philadelphia Council Proclaims William and Mary King and Queen
Dateline: Philadelphia, 1 Nov 1689: The Council debates how William and Mary became King and Queen. Let’s listen in on a near-verbatim transcription of their discussion on that day. They were part of church history, and so was the council of Philadelphia.
Philadelphia Council Proclaims Anne Queen of England
Dateline: 5 July 1702, Philadelphia. People in the New World thought it best to proclaim her queen in order to provide for their own defence and form a militia against invasion and for legal reasons. Both sides of the Atlantic were part of church history.
What Are Renewal Movements in Christianity?
How are they defined? How many people belong to them?
The Truth about Islamic Jihad and Imperialism: A Timeline
This post shows Islamic jihad in a four-hundred year timeline before the pope called the First Crusade in 1095. The Church, imperfect as it was (and is), was merely responding to Islamic aggression. No jihad. No Crusades. Peace.
Elizabeth I, Part 8: Summary and Death
On 28 Apr 1603 her body was put in a coffin and was taken to Westminster Abbey on an open chariot drawn by four horses hung with black velvet. Her coffin was covered in purple velvet, firmly sealed.
Elizabeth I, Part 7: Her Male Favorites
Sorry, but it has to be asked, with all due respect. Did she really remain the ‘Virgin’ Queen? Discussion of the men in her life. Specialist historians offer their opinion.
Elizabeth I, Part 6: Personal Life
From her coronation on 15 Jan 1559 to her death on 24 Mar 1603, she ruled for forty-four years. This post skims the surface of the main personal events and lifestyle preferences in those years. Her motto was semper eadem or “Always one and the same.” Did she live up to it?
Elizabeth I, Part 5: Reformation and International Policies
Under her reign, Spain launched five armadas against England. Sir Walter Raleigh sponsored the English colony of Roanoke, North Carolina, by 1585, but it did not last long. Sir Francis Drake was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe. And of course Shakespeare wrote many of his plays. Virginia was named after her, since she never married.
Elizabeth I, Part 4: Mary Queen of Scots
Did Elizabeth have to sign Mary’s execution warrant? A tense time when Catholics were hatching assassination plots against Elizabeth. A brief biography of Mary included.
Elizabeth I, Part 3: The Coronation
This short post covers the coronation itself.
Elizabeth, Part 2: Sibling Rivalry with Queen Mary
Now things get very complicated! Includes a side-by-side comparison.
Elizabeth, Part 1: Early Years
Her older half-sister, Queen Mary, imprisoned her in the Tower of London. She asked if the scaffold was still up, where Lady Jane Grey, the Queen of Nine Days, was beheaded. Terrifying for her.
Mary I: England’s Catholic Queen
Born on 18 Feb 1516, crowned on 1 Oct 1553, married on 25 July 1554, dying 17 Nov 1558, she was the first female monarch who ruled over all of England. She acquired the epithet “Bloody Mary.” The number of her executions she ordered in her brief reign is included here.
Jane Grey, Queen of Nine Days
She was young and easily manipulated. Tragic.
Edward VI: the Boy King
Born on 12 Oct 1537, crowned on 19 Feb 1547, and dying on 6 July 1553, son of Henry VIII and his third wife Jane Seymour, Edward lived only fifteen years and eight months. He never ruled in his own right, but his godfather Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, did push through religious reforms with the boy-king’s approval.
Henry VIII, Part 5: Personal Life, Death, and Conclusions
He was born on 28 June 1491 at Greenwich Palace. He succeeded to the throne on 21 Apr 1509, after the death of his father Henry VII. He was crowned 23 June 1509. He died at two o’clock in the morning, on 28 Jan 1547 at Whitehall, London. He was buried in St. George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle. His tomb was opened and his body was examined in 1813 …. Includes basic facts on his wives and children
Henry VIII, Part 4: International Policies
These policies seek to kick Rome’s influence out of England and ensure his grab for church property. How did Rome, France, the Holy Roman Empire, and Spain react?
Henry VIII, Part 3: Reformation and National Policies
He dragged England towards the Reformation–or at least towards diminished papal authority in his realm. The names and classes of those whom he executed are listed.
Henry VIII, Part 2: Marriages after His Divorce
After he divorced Queen Catherine of Aragon, his personal life and even the whole nation took unexpected turns. Includes basic facts about his wives after the divorce.
Henry VIII, Part 1: Early Life and Divorce from Catherine of Aragon
This area has national, ecclesiastical, and international repercussions, but these areas are still influenced by Henry’s personal desire for a divorce with popular Queen Catherine. Includes basic facts about her and Henry’s children.
Henry VII: First Tudor King
He was a Lancastrian who was born in 1457; ascended the throne on 22 Aug 1485 with the death of Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth; crowned on 30 Oct 1485; and died in 1509. He supposedly ended the War of the Roses, but not domestic rebellions launched by the Yorkists. He was the father of in/famous Henry VIII.
Richard III, King of England
This article is divided in two parts: (1) the basic facts about his life (2) and a discussion of his (possible) involvement in the death of his two nephews, the Princes in the Tower.
Edward V: Prince in the Tower
This article is a quick, uncluttered review of the basic facts. He succeeded to the throne when his father King Edward IV died in 1483, but he was never crowned. He reigned—not ruled—for only 77 days, until his uncle Richard usurped the throne.
Edward IV King of England
This post is quick review of basic facts.
Henry VI King of England
Succeeding his father at nine months young in 1422, and growing up extra-pious, Henry was a Lancastrian who was not fit for the hard-hitting politics of fifteenth-century kingship. He suffered from bouts of mental illness. He died (was killed) in 1471.
Henry V King of England
Henry (b. 1386) was the eldest son of Henry IV. Crowned in 1413, how would Henry V govern and fight as the second Lancastrian king, by the time he died young in 1422?
Henry IV King of England
Born in 1367, Henry forced Richard II to abdicate in 1399 and then was crowned shortly afterwards. He was the first Lancastrian king. He died in 1413.
Richard II: The Weak King
Born 6 Jan 1367, in Bordeaux, France (baptized 9 Jan 1367 in Bordeaux Cathedral), he succeeded to the throne on 21 June 1377 and was crowned 16 July. He was forced to abdicate on 30 Nov 1399. He died 14 Feb 1400 at Pontefract Castle, Yorkshire. He asserted his royal power beyond his abilities.
Edward III: Better Than Most
Born in 1312, crowned 1327, and dying in 1377, Edward III was king of England for fifty years. He was highly regarded by the people of his times and for centuries after.
Edward II: A King of Bad Judgment
Born on 25 April 1284, he was the first heir in English history to be given the title Prince of Wales. He succeeded 7 July 1307 and was crowned 25 February 1308. He was deposed 24 January 1327—the first king to be so since the Conquest in 1066—and died or was murdered on 21 September.
Eleanor of Castile: Interesting Facts and Stories
Born in about 1241 in Castile, Spain, she married Edward I of England in 1254. He became king in 1272 and was crowned in 1274. She died in 1294 after giving birth. She had fourteen to sixteen children, after all.
Edward I: Interesting Facts and Stories
He lived from 1239 to 1307. He married Eleanor of Castile. Included is the opening of Edward’s tomb in 1774.
Eleanor of Provence: Interesting Facts and Stories
Born probably in 1223 in Provence, southern France, she married English king Henry III on 14 Jan 1236 and was crowned queen on 20 Jan 1236. After living an exciting life in support of her husband against the baronage and in her support of her own rule, and that of her son Edward I, she died on 24 June 1291.
Henry III: Interesting Facts and Stories
Son of King John, born in 1207, crowned in 1216 in a rush after his father died (and again in 1220), and dying in 1272, he was super-devout, developing his veneration of Saint and King Edward the Confessor. Did his extra-piety get in the way of an effective kingship? The birth of Parliament happened on his watch.
King John: Interesting Facts and Stories
Throughout English history, there is only one King John because no king after him took his name. Why would that be?
King Richard I, Lion-Heart: Interesting Facts and Stories
Born in 1157 and ruling from 1189 to 1199, he is called Lion-heart because of his prowess in battle, during the Third Crusade.
Eleanor of Aquitaine: Interesting Facts and Stories
Living eighty years, she was the wife of the King of France when she was thirteen, then at twenty-eight wife of the King of England, and mother of three English kings. She lived from 1124 to 1204, eighty years.
Henry II Plantagenet: Interesting Facts and Stories
He lived from 1133 to 1189 and began his kingship in 1154. This post also looks into his grandfather Henry I, his uncle King Stephen, and Henry II’s wife Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Empress Matilda and Three Henrys
Great by birth, greater by marriage, greatest in her offspring, she lived from 1102 to 1167 and was the daughter of Henry I and mother of Henry II. She fought King Stephen for her son Henry. She was indomitable, as seen particularly in her two Great Escapes.
King Stephen: Interesting Facts and Stories
He was born in about 1092, hastily crowned king of England in 1135 and died in 1154. His reign was so tenuous that he was challenged from every side. Of his reign it was said that it seemed Christ and his saints slept. A real-life game of thrones.
King Henry I: Interesting Facts and Stories
Born about 1068-69, he was the fourth son of William the Conqueror. He was not expected to become the King of the English, but he did at his coronation on 5 Aug 1100. How did that happen? He died on 1 Dec 1135. Basic family facts are included..
King William II, Rufus: Interesting Facts and Stories
Rufus means “red,” which indicates his complexion. This nickname distinguishes him from his father William I, the Conqueror. He ruled from 1087-1100. The most widely known fact about Rufus is his death under suspicious circumstances, while he was hunting. Accident or murder?
Matilda: Wife and Queen of William the Conqueror
Born probably at the end of 1031, married Duke William of Normandy in 1049-50, and dying in 1083, she was duchess of Normandy and queen of England and wielded her power with class and dignity.
William the Conqueror: Interesting Facts and Stories
This “illegitimate son,” the duke of Normandy, forever changed the course of English history. .
Robert I, Duke of Normandy
He was the father of William the Conqueror and ruled over Normandy from 1027 to 1035. Continue reading
Richard II, Duke of Normandy
He was the grandfather of William the Conqueror and as duke ruled Normandy from 996 to 1026. Richard’s son Richard III (the Conqueror’s uncle) is included in this post since he ruled only from 1026 to 1027, about twelve months.
Richard I, Norman Marquis and Count
He was William the Conqueror’s great-grandfather and ruled over a developing Normandy or Northmen for fifty-one years, from 945 to his death in 996.
Rolf or Rollo the Viking
Born in latter half of the 800s and died around 928, he was the Viking leader who became the count of Rouen, capital of Normandy. Some say he was the duke of the Normans. He was the first in the House of Normandy and the great-great-great-grandfather of William the Conqueror.
Charles IV, the Handsome, King of France
The last and fourteenth king of the Capetian dynasty, he was nicknamed the Fair or Handsome because supposedly he was just that (le Bel in older French). He was born in 1294 and reigned from 1322 to 1328. His first wife was accused of adultery. Would she survive?
Philip V, the Tall, King of France
He was the thirteenth Capetian king, reigning only from 1316 to 1322. He was nicknamed the Tall or the Long because … well … he was tall. His wife was accused of concealing adultery. Would she survive?
Louis X, the Quarrelsome, King of France
The twelfth Capetian king, he reigned from only 1314 to 1316. His father accused Louis’s wife of adultery on the flimsiest of grounds. Did she survive it?
Philip IV the Handsome, King of France
The eleventh king in the Capetian dynasty, Philip IV the Fair or Good Looking (le Bel in the French of that day) was born in 1268 and ruled from 1285 to 1314. Was he able to destroy the Knights Templar?
Philip III the Bold, King of France
The Bold in English and le Hardi in French, he was born in 1245 and reigned from 1270 to 1285. He was the tenth in the line of Capetian kings.
Louis IX, the Saintly King of France
The ninth Capetian king, he was born in 1214 and ruled from 1226 to 1270. He was an extra-pious king and was soon declared a saint after his death. Pope Boniface VIII called him a “superman,” religiously speaking.
Louis VIII the Lion, King of France
He was born in 1187, the eighth in the dynasty, and ruled only from 1223 to 1226. He and his father Philip II Augustus were kings when Henry II, Richard I, John, and Henry III were kings of England. Fireworks!
Philip II Augustus
Philip, the seventh Capetian, born in 1165, reigned from 1179 to 1223 and was nicknamed Augustus (why?). On a personal note, he had a strange wedding ceremony with the young princess Ingeborg of Denmark (some say it was witchcraft). But politically, he expanded his royal domain to the detriment of the English Plantagenets.
Louis VII, King of France
For those who care about the triangle of Louis – Eleanor of Aquitaine – Henry of Anjou (later King Henry II of England), this post is for those readers. Yet Louis had to depend on the church to annul (divorce) his wife Eleanor.
Louis VI, the Fat
He is the fifth Capetian of that dynasty, ruling from 1108 to 1137. He had the help of Abbot Suger, a superior administrator and the famous architect of the basilica of St. Denis.
Philip I, King of France
The fourth Capetian king of France, he was born in 1052 or 1053 and began his reign as a minor in 1059 (or 1060) until his death in 1108. He came of age when the William the Conqueror was strong, so Philip’s reign was overshadowed.
Henri I, King of France
He was the third Capetian king and born in 1008 and ruled from 1031 to his death in 1060. His reign was overshadowed by William of Normandy, future duke there and the Conqueror of England in 1066.
Robert II, the Pious, King of France
Nicknamed the Pious, Robert (b. c. 972-1031) was the son of Hugh Capet, the namesake of the Capetians, father of Henri, King of France, and father of Adela (or Adelaide), the mother-in-law of William the Conqueror.
Hugh Capet, King of France
Hugh (c. 939-996) is the namesake of the Capetian dynasty, the first king. The Capetians reigned in an all-male succession to 1328. Through collateral lines his descendants ruled up to and after the French Revolution. Text of the oath he swore at his coronation is included.
Hugh the Great
Hugh (d. 956) was a transitional figure between his father Robert I and mother Beatrix (female descendant of Charlemagne) and his son Hugh Capet, after whom the Capetian dynasty is named. Continue reading
Robert (865-923) was of the Robertian line in France, which feeds into the Capetians.
Herbert II, Count of Vermandois
Herbert (880 to 943) was the count of Vermandois. His line is called the Herbertines or the House of Vermandois.
Herbert I, Count of Vermandois
Herbert I was a great-great-grandson of Charlemagne, and his daughter Beatrix married Robert I, grandfather of Hugh Capet, the namesake of the Capetian dynasty.
Pippin, Great-Grandson of Charlemagne
This post may be the shortest one yet! Here are the known vital statistics.
Bernard, King of Italy
Living from about 797 to 818, he was the grandson of Charlemagne and king of Italy. He also had his eyes gouged out by his uncle.
Pippin, Son of Charlemagne
There are several Pippins among the Carolingians. This Pippin (773-810) was Charlemagne’s son and the father of Bernard, king of Italy.
Charlemagne: Interesting Facts and Stories
He lived from 748 to 814. He was the greatest ruler in the Medieval Age in his known world and surpassed the conquests and glory of many kings for centuries.
Glossary of Medieval Terms: A to Z
This is a handy, quick reference to terms and concepts of class structure, offices, units of land measurements, taxes, and so on. Great for students and researchers. Good for research in earliest colonial America, too, since many of the terms survived to then.
Christianity Is Fastest Growing Religion in World
In this post, growth is defined by reaching people and converting them and an increase in church attendance, not birthrate or immigration. Measured in that way, Christianity is the fastest growing religion in the world, without a close second. Periodically updated.
A Defense of Martin Luther
Or at least an explanation. He is included at this website because he renewed Christian doctrine.
Here is a list of the principal works referenced or used at this site. More will be added as time goes on, so please check back.